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Radiographic Testing

Radiographic Film Interpretation

I/II

40

$1250.00

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Radiographic Technique Course

  1. Introduction
    1. Process of radiography
    2. Types of electromagnetic radiation sources
    3. Electromagnetic spectrum
    4. Penetrating ability or “quality” of X-rays and gamma rays
    5. X-ray tube – change of mA or kVp effect on “quality” and intensity
  2. Basic Principles of Radiography
    1. Geometric exposure principles
      1. “Shadow” formation and distortion
      2. Shadow enlargement calculation
      3. Shadow sharpness
      4. Geometric unsharpness
      5. Finding discontinuity depth
    2. Radiographic screens
      1. Lead intensifying screens
      2. Fluorescent intensifying screens
      3. Intensifying factors
      4. Importance of screen-to-film contact
      5. Importance of screen cleanliness and care
    3. Radiographic cassettes
    4. Composition of industrial radiographic film
  3. Radiographs
    1. Formation of the latent image on film
    2. Inherent unsharpness
    3. Arithmetic of radiographic exposure
      1. Milliamperage – distance-time relationship
      2. Reciprocity law
      3. Photographic density
      4. Inverse square law considerations
    4. Characteristic (Hurter and Driffield) curve
    5. Film speed and class descriptions
    6. Selection of film for particular purpose
  4. Radiographic Image Quality
    1. Radiographic sensitivity
    2. Radiographic contrast
    3. Film contrast
    4. Subject contrast
    5. Definition
    6. Film graininess and screen mottle effects
    7. Image quality indicators
  5. Exposure Techniques – Radiography
    1. Single-wall radiography
    2. Double-wall radiography
      1. Viewing two walls simultaneously
      2. Offset double-wall exposure single-wall viewing
      3. Elliptical techniques
    3. Panoramic radiography
    4. Use of multiple-film loading
    5. Specimen configuration

Film Quality and Manufacturing Processes Course

  1. Darkroom Facilities, Techniques and Processing
    1. Facilities and equipment
      1. Automatic film processor versus manual processing
    2. Protection of radiographic film in storage
    3. Processing of film – manual
      1. Developer and replenishment
      2. Stop bath
      3. Fixer and replenishment
      4. Washing
      5. Prevention of water spots
      6. Drying
    4. Automatic film processing
    5. Film filing and storage
      1. Retention-life measurements
      2. Long-term storage
      3. Filing and separation techniques
    6. Unsatisfactory radiographs – causes and cures
      1. High film density
      2. Insufficient film density
      3. High contrast
      4. Low contrast
      5. Poor definition
      6. Fog
      7. Light leaks
      8. Artifacts
    7. Film density
      1. Step-wedge comparison film
      2. Densitometers
  2. Indications, Discontinuities and Defects
    1. Indications
    2. Discontinuities
      1. Inherent
      2. Processing
      3. Service
    3. Defects
  3. Manufacturing Processes and Associated Discontinuities
    1. Casting processes and associated discontinuities
      1. Ingots, blooms and billets
      2. Sand casting
      3. Centrifugal casting
      4. Investment casing
    2. Wrought processes and associated discontinuities
      1. Forgings
      2. Rolled products
      3. Extruded products
    3. Welding processes and associated discontinuities
      1. Submerged arc welding (SAW)
      2. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
      3. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
      4. Flux corded arc welding (FLAW)
      5. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)

Radiographic Evaluation and Interpretation Course

  1. Radiographic Viewing
    1. Film-illuminator requirements
    2. Background lighting
    3. Multiple-composite viewing
    4. Image quality indicator placement
    5. Personnel dark adaptation and visual acuity
    6. Film identification
    7. Location markers
    8. Film-density measurement
    9. Film artifacts
  2. Application Techniques
    1. Multiple-film techniques
      1. Thickness-variation parameters
      2. Film speed
      3. Film latitude
    2. Enlargement and projection
    3. Geometric relationships
      1. Geometric unsharpness
      2. Image quality indicator sensitivity
      3. Source-to-film distance
      4. Focal-spot size
    4. Triangulation methods for discontinuity location
    5. Localized magnification
    6. Film-handling techniques
  3. Evaluation of Castings
    1. Casting-method review
    2. Casting discontinuities
    3. Origin and typical orientation of discontinuities
    4. Radiographic appearance
    5. Casting codes/standards – applicable acceptance criteria
    6. Reference radiographs
  4. Evaluation of Weldments
    1. Welding-method review
    2. Welding discontinuities
    3. Origin and typical orientation of discontinuities
    4. Radiographic appearance
    5. Welding codes/standards – applicable acceptance criteria
    6. Reference radiographs or pictograms
  5. Standards, Codes and Procedures for Radiography
    1. Acceptable radiographic techniques and setups
    2. Applicable employer procedures
    3. Procedure for radiograph parameter verification
    4. Radiographic reports

Total hours of instruction for this course: 40 hours